Introduction of students to experimental and theoretical aspects of low-temperature physics. This course gives a comprehensive overview of the area, starting from the methods of obtaining low temperatures, working with cryogenic liquids, temperature measurements to theoretical models for the most important phenomena of low-temperature physics: superconductivity and superfluidity. This course prepares students for work in the solid state physics laboratory and introduces them to the theoretical concepts of the most important phenomena of low-temperature physics.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1.2 demonstrate a thorough knowledge of advanced methods of theoretical physics including classical mechanics, classical electrodynamics, statistical physics and quantum physics
1.3 demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena)
1.4 describe the state of the art in - at least- one of the presently active physics specialities
2.2 evaluate clearly the orders of magnitude in situations which are physically different, but show analogies, thus allowing the use of known solutions in new problems;
2.4 adapt available models to new experimental data
3.2 develop a personal sense of responsibility, given the free choice of elective/optional courses
4.2 present one's own research or literature search results to professional as well as to lay audiences
5.1 search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required)
5.3 carry out research by undertaking a PhD
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
Upon passing this course, students will be able to:
* work in low-temperature laboratory
* plan the manufacturing of parts of the apparatus used at low temperatures
* choose the best technique for achieving low temperature for a specific measurement needs
* demonstrate a broad understanding of the phenomenon of low-temperature physics
* demonstrate knowledge and understanding of superconductivity and superfluidity
Methods of obtaining low temperatures (T> 1 K) (principles of liquefaction, helium and nitrogen liquefiers) [6 hours]
Working with cryogenic liquids (cryostats, thermometry, losses) [6 hours]
The properties of He4 and He3 (superfluidity) [3 hours]
Methods of obtaining temperature <1 K (He3 cryostat, He3-He4 dilution cryostat, Pomeranchuk effect, methods of demagnetization) [6 hours]
Condensates and excitations, vortex and sounds in helium [8 hours]
Superconductivity (physical characteristics, theoretical models, applications) [8 hours]
Student seminars [8 hours]
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Students must attend classes and prepare seminar papers and presentations. In the end, students take the oral exam.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
During the course, students present seminars, and at the end of the course, take the oral exam. Seminars contribute about 40% of the final grade, and the oral exam 60%.
- D. Tilley, J. Tilley, Superfluidity and Superconductivity, IOP Publishing Ltd., 1990.
M. Cyrot, D. Pavuna: Introduction To Superconductivity and High Tc Materials, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992.