Students achieve basic knowledge for recognition, classification and origin of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks together with determination of their environments and settings. Basic knowledge includes elements of laboratory and field work.
Rock forming minerals, structure, texture, mode of occurrence. Intrusive, vein and extrusive rocks. Pyroclastic rocks. Earth mineral and chemical composition, magma, variation diagrams, magmatic series. Classification of igneous rocks. Volcanoes.
Magma origin and evolution. Magma emplacement and relative age. Magma crystallization, differentiation, crystallization and melting in binary and ternary systems. Influence of different geological factors on crystallization process. Partial melting. Igneous rocks associations, plate tectonic in magmatic cycle. Mantle. Magmatism on the active and passive continental margins.
Igneous rocks of divergent plate margins, rift, oceanic crust, upper mantle. Volcanism inside oceanic plates, hot-spots.
Igneous rocks of convergent margins, island arc, continental magmatic arc, ophiolite suite. Plate (continental-continental) collision, granite.
Metamorphism, limits, factors, grade. Type and classification of metamorphism. Prograde and retrograde metamorphism.
Protoliths and chemical composition of metamorphic rocks. Rock forming minerals, textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Classifications - scheme and recommendations.
Influence of pressure, temperature and fluids on the mineral assemblage. Metamorphic isograds, facies and facies series. Metamorphic belts. Thermal, cataclastic, regional, sea floor, burial, impact, polyphase metamorphism.
Geotectonic settings of metamorphism. Application of equlibrium concepts to metamorphic rocks, geotermobarometry basics, age of metamorphism.
Earth surface processes - physical and chemical weathering. Soil-forming factors. Erosion of soil. Paleosols.
Transport and deposition. Bedload and suspension transport. Transport by sediment gravity flows.
Clastic sediments: textures, structures and composition of sandstones, conglomerates, breccias and mudstones. Diagenetic processes and environments. Sandstone and conglomerate bodies. Depositional environments.
Carbonate deposits: textures, structures and components of limestones. Microbial processes and products. Depositional environments. Diagenetic processes (neomorphism, dolomitization, dedolomitization, silicification).
Evaporites, chert, phosphorites, iron and manganese deposits, bauxites: mineralogy, origin, diagenesis. Organic deposits. Coal, rank stages of coal, formation and occurrence of coal. Oil shales. Formation of kerogen. The principal phases of hydrocarbons generation.
How knowledge about sediments is used in human activity: excavation, tunnelling, different buildings, environments protection, mining etc.
- detailed knowledge of the mineralogy and petrology courses taught during the first five semesters will be practically used in the course;
- students will acquire basic knowledge and skills to effectively conduct the methods, students will also develop new skills in response to new knowledge and techniques;
- with active participation in preparation students will acquire basic knowledge for understanding and solving problems by multidisciplinary linking knowledge;
- demonstrate critical thinking in problem solving, including use of information from scientific sources. Acquire experience of teamwork in a complex research environment;
- upon completion of the course, students will have developed analytical abilities and critical thinking. They will increase communication skills.
- Best, M.G. (2003): Igneous and metamorphic petrology.- Blackwell Publishing, 729 pp.
Blatt, H. & Tracy, R.J. (1996): Petrology. Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks.- W.H. Freeman and co., 529 pp.
Tucker, E.M. (2001): Sedimentary Petrology. An Introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks. Blackwell Science, 3. izd., IX+262 str., Oxford.
Collinson, J.D. & Thompson, D.B. (1993): Sedimentary Structures. 2. izdanje. Chapman & Hall. 207 str. London.
Adams, A.E., MacKenzie,W.S. & Guilford, C. (1987): Atlas of sedimentary rocks under the microscope. Longham Scientific & Techical, VII+104, London.