Relation of Geology with other natural sciences. Space, origin of the Earth, planets, asteroids, comets, meteors. Shape and constitution of the Earth. Minerals and rocks key elements of the lithosphere. Plate tectonics: boundaries, causes. Magmatism and volcanism: magmatic bodies, types of volcanic rocks, volcano types, types of volcanic eruptions and their products, calderas, post-volcanic activity. Seismics: causes of earthquakes, wave types, principles of seismograph operation, seismogram, tsunami, seiches, intensity and energy of earthquakes, MCS-scale, Richter's magnitude, earthquake effects, role of substratum on earthquake effects, post-earthquake processes, applied seismic research in geology. Tectonics: bed, bedding plane properties, bed strike and dip, geological compass, concordance and discordance, folds (components, types, systems), faults (components, types, systems), overthrusts and overthrusting mechanism. Surface processes: weathering (chemical, mechanical), origin of soils, slope processes (creep, slumping, debris flow, turbidity currents, rock-falls), transport and erosion, Hjulström's diagram, sedimentation, sedimentary structures, diagenesis. Water: hydrologic cycle, rock porosity and permeability, types of water, water table, aquifer and barrier, threats and protection of ground water, water in islands, types of springs. Rivers: drainage systems, drainage basin and divide, stream characteristics, stream graded profile, base level, river types, rivers and geological structures, flood plains, alluvial terraces, deltas (Gilbert-deltas, ordinary deltas), delta progradation, estuary (origin, types), alluvial fans and fan deltas. Lakes: types, hydrology, sediments, response to base-level change, ecological threats. Karst: genesis, geomorphology (surficial and underground features), hydrogeology of karst, origin of caves, cave morphology and tectonics, response to base-level change, ecological threats, evolution of karst. Snow, avalanches, geological role of avalanches. Ice: origin of glacier ice, ice properties, types of ice cover on the Earth, glaciers (composition, movement), glacial geomorphology, glacial sediments (moraines, proglacial lake deposits) and sedimentary bodies (eskers, drumlins, glaciofluvial and glaciomarine deltas), fiords, sandar. Deserts: distribution, origin/causes, types, desert geomorphology, evolution of desert landscape, sediments and sedimentary bodies (dunes, types of dunes), draa, ergs, desert hydrogeology, oasis, wadi, desertification in Mesopotany, water and Middle East conflicts. Seas and Oceans: volume of seas on the Earth, chemistry of sea-water, tides, sea currents, waves, wave erosion, ravinement, classification of seas, coastal types and coastal geomorphology, effects of hurricanes and storms on coastal processes, carbonate platforms, deep-sea physiography, processes and sediments in various bathymetric zones, sea-level change (relative, eustatic), types of depositional basins. Earth physics: isostasy, glacioisostasy, heat (radiation, heat flux), magnetism (cause, van Allen's radiation belts, paleomagnetism). Geological time: dating in geology (relative, radiometric), stratigraphical systems (geochronological, chronostratigraphical, lithostratigraphical). Evolution of life on the Earth: fossilisation, types of fossils, faunal turnovers in Earth history. Environments and facies.
Awareness of the importance of geology as a natural science disciplines.
Knowledge of the geological structure of the Earth and processes in the Earth's interior and on the surface.
Apply today examples of geological processes in explaining and describing the formation and evolution of the Earth, the Solar system and plate tectonics.
The ability to link the Earth's internal dynamics, earthquakes and volcanism.
Knowledge and understanding of the rock types, tectonic processes and structures.
Distinguish environments on Earth, their features, dynamics and sediments and understand their geological significance.
Knowledge and understanding of the development of life on Earth.
Develop the skills of basic methods of geological research.