Basic principles of hydrogeochemistry: formation of natural water composition, precipitation, surface and groundwater; physical and chemical properties, isotope composition; thermodynamic equilibrium in water solutions; dissolution of gases, liquids and solids in water, fractionation, diffusion and osmosis, vapour pressure, dissolution of electrolytes, chemical kinetics and equilibrium (water dissociation and pH, equilibrium in acid and base solutions, buffer solution, hydrolysis of salts); carbonate equilibrium (dissolution and precipitation, water hardness, open and closed system of carbonate dissolution, dissolution of dolomites); stability of primary silicates and weathering products (weathering kinetics, mass balance, precipitation and dissolution); redox reactions (redox equilibrium, stability of dissolved ionic species, gases and minerals ? Eh-pH diagrams ?oxidation of pyrite, oxidation and reduction of ionic species of nitrogen, sulphur, iron); basic chemistry of colloids, ionic exchange, adsorption; chemical composition of natural waters (gases, main ions, biogenic substances, microelements, organic matter). Natural radioactive and stable isotopes in soils, surface and ground waters ? isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen (14C, 3H, 18O, D, 13C, 34S, 15N), origin, geochemistry, application in water and soil studies. Water-soil-rock interaction: reactions in unsaturated and saturated zone of aquifer (dissolution of gases, silicates and carbonates, oxidation of sulphides, cationic and anionic exchange, organic reactions); influence of salinization of different origin; geochemical types of water). Fundamentals of geochemical modeling of processes in natural waters -speciation models, mass balance models, reaction-path models. Groundwater protection ? natural and anthropogenic sources of groundwater contamination, types of contamination sources, types of contaminations and its behavior in the underground. Aspects of alluvial and karst aquifer protection ? different approach. Geochemical aspects of groundwater protections, simulation of contaminant behavior by geochemical modeling. Basic principles of contaminant transport modeling, analytical and numerical models and its application. Groundwater protection and management: monitoring of water quantity and quality, vulnerability mapping (intrinsic and specific), mapping and classification of hazards, risk assessment, GIS application in groundwater protection. Overview of legislative on environmental protection, waste disposal and emission of contaminants in the environment, protection of quantity and quality of groundwaters. Criterions of groundwater protection ? case study analysis, determination of sanitary protection zones, study of influence on environment for different purposes.
Awareness of the applications and responsibilities of Geology and its role in society including its environmental aspects.
Ability to integrate field and laboratory evidence with theory following the sequence from observation to recognition, synthesis and modelling
Ability to conduct appropriate experiments, to analyze and interpret data and draw conclusions.
Basic ability to prepare, process, interpret and present data, using appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques and packages
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