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Animal Phylogeny and Systematics

Code: 45076
ECTS: 3.0
Lecturers in charge: doc. dr. sc. Tvrtko Dražina - Lectures
Lecturers: izv. prof. dr. sc. Marija Ivković - Lectures
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
By the end of this course, students should be able to:

1. Identify characteristics of major animal taxa and their phylogenetic relationships
2. Explain the data used to develop the animal phylogenetic tree
3. Construct and interpret simple phylogenetic trees
4. Appreciate and summarize the evolutionary history of animals
5. Recognize the evolutionary trends that exist among animal taxa
6. Integrate related topics from separate parts of the course
7. Think critically, analyse and evaluate claims, evidence and arguments
8. Adapt knowledge to new situations.



1. Introduction: Biological classification, Nomenclature, Systematics, Phylogeny Important concepts and terms. Models of phylogenetic trees (dichotomous, linear and divergent; monophyletic and polyphyletic)
2.-3. Principles and problems of phylogenetic study. Morphological patterns and traditional divisions (pattern of symmetry, germ layers, body cavities, body division: metamerism and segmentation, skeletal system and basic body plan)
4. Sources of evidence in animal phylogeny: fossil record, embryology end larvae, cell ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, gene sequencing.
5. Origin and early evolution of Metazoa. Theories of metazoan origin from Protozoa: colonial "blastaea/gastraea" theories, colonial "blastaea/planula" theories, colonial "ameboid/acoeloid" theories; syncytial "ciliate/acoeloid" theories
6. Major steps in animal evolution. Different approaches to the phylogenetic relationships between the major groups (phyla and superphyla) of animals.
7. Evolution of the lower Metazoa
8.-10. Evolution of the Protostomia
11. Evolution of the Deuterostomia (non-chordates)
12.-14. Evolution of the Deuterostomia (chordates)
15. Anthropogenesis.
  1. Habdija, I., Primc Habdija, B., Radanović, I., Špoljar, M., Matoničkin Kepčija, R., Vujčić Karlo, S., Miliša, M. Ostojić, A., Sertić Perić, M. (2011): Protista-Protozoa i Metazoa-Invertebrata. Strukture i funkcije.- Alfa d.d., Zagreb, 584 Pages, ISBN 978-953-297-306-8.
  2. Nielsen, C. (2012): Animal Evolution. Interrelationshops of the Living Phyla.- 3rd ed, Oxford University Press, 402 Pages, ISBN 978-0-19-960602-3.
1. semester
Mandatory course - Regular module - Zoology

9. semester Not active
Izborni predmeti biologija - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule: